Trends and Issues in Establishing Interoperability Among Knowledge Organization Systems

Summary

This report finished by Marcia Lei Zeng and Lois Mai chan analyze the methodologies used in establishing interoperability among knowledge organization systems (KOS).The development and trends of KOS are discussed with reference to the online era and the Internet era. Selected current projects and activities addressing KOS interoperability issues including UMLS Metathesaurus, CAMed, UC Berkeley DARPA Unfamiliar Metadata Project etc.. are reviewed in terms of the languages and structures involved. Also the authors analyze the conventional and new methods of interoperability of KOS.

Key points

1. Analysis of projects involved in this report in terms of structural types and languages

2. Methods of Interoperability of KOS

(1) Derivation/Modeling

To develop a specialized simpler vocabulary with an existing, more comprehensive vocabulary, such as MeSH, Sears List of Subject Headings, CSH, FAST;

(2) Translation/Adaptation

To develop a new KOS via translating the controlled vocabularies from one language to another, such as RVM, Rameau, YSA;

(3) Satellite and Leaf Node Linking

To create new vocabularies as satellites of original superstructure.

(4) Direct Mapping

To establish equivalence between terms in different controlled vocabularies or between verbal terms and classification numbers.

(5) Co-occurrence Mapping

To establish mapping between terms via co-occurrence relationship in metadata records in vocabularies.

(6) Switching

To produce an intermediary by switching language or scheme in translating equivalent terms in different vocabularies. Such a switching system can be a new system (e.g., UMLS’ Metathesaurus) or an existing system (e.g., DDC),such as Megathesaurus、Renardus project

(7) Linking Through a Temporary Union List

Terms are linked according to their word matching, whole or partial, when being displayed in a temporary union list generated by the software in response to a query.

(8)Linking Through a Thesaurus Server Protocol

To establish a linked environment through a thesaurus server protocol.

3. Methods Used in Link Storage and Management

(1)Authority Records

(2)Concordances

(3)Semantic Network

(4)Lexical Database

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